Editor's Foreword 6
Introduction:Adjustment,integration and sharing:
and water resource facilities in Taiwan
Water System Heritage Site Map 10
22 Important Water System Heritage Sites in Taiwan
1.Nuannuan Water Treatment Plant 12
2.Taipei Water Treatment Plant 17
3.Grass Mountains Water Supply System 22
4.The Facilities of Hydropower System around Xidian River 26
5.Shimen Reservoir and Its Irrigation System in Taoyuan Tableland 30
6.Houli Canal Irrigation System and Its Hydropower Plant 34
7.Huludun Canal Irrigation System 38
8.Cultural Landscape of Baileng Canal Irrigation System 42
9.The Facilities of Hydropower System around Dajia River 46
10.Intake Facilities of Babao Canal Irrigation System 51
11.The Facilities of Sun-Moon Lake Hydropower System 55
12.The complementary nature of Chainan Irrigation Canals 61
13.The Great Irrigation System in Chianan Canals 66
14.Tainan Water Treatment Plant 70
15.Zhuzhimen Hydroppwer Plant and Shihzitou Canal Irrigation System 74
16.Kaoshiung Water Supply System 78
17.The Old Intake and Weir in Zaogon Canal Irrigation System 82
18.Erfong Canal Irrigation System 86
19.Open Ievee System in Lanyang River 90
20.The Facilities of Hydropower System around Lanyang River 94
21.The Facilities of Hydropower System around Mugua River 98
22.Wisdom of Using Water When Water is limited 102
Chun-Ming Huang,Yu-Chen Chien
Adjustment,integration and sharing:
and water resource facilities in Taiwan
In recent years,to tackle climate change,making water resources
sustainable has become an important issue globally.Located in the
subtropical area,Taiwan is a rainy country with lots of typhoons in
summer. With the central mountain range rising high adove in the
middle, Taiwan has many short rushing rivers. In a sense,water resources
can't rivers. be retained properly.From generations to generations,
inhabitants of this land have developed many ways and techniques to get,
utilize and manage water resoureces. Therefore,a diversity of water-related
facilities has been passed down, and they continuously function nowadays.
They indeed show a deep connection with the land,communities and life of
people in Taiwan.It is no exaggeration to say they are a significant part
of Taiwan cultural and historical sites.
Unique geograghy and culture
Situated in the subtropical zone,Taiwan is a rainy island with high
temperatures, With average rainfall over 2500 millimeters annually,
Taiwan's rainfall is 2.6 times the average rainfall of the world.
Nevertheless, the precipitation mainly concentrates from May to October,
which are the rainy seasons here. From June to September,typhoons are likely
to bring torrential rains to Taiwan.However,from November to April,Taiwan
has scarce rainfall.The precipitation proportions during the rainy and
dry seasons are 6:4 in the south.8:2 in the central,and 9:1 in the south.
This precipitation differences lead to sudden changes in water levels in
the rivers during differences seasons. During rainy seasons,for example,
overflowing rivers ravage many parts of Taiwan.During drought seasons,
many rivers turn into small streams,some of which have no water left with
riverbanks full of rocks and pebbles exposed.
As a narrow island with the central mountain range rising over 3000 meters
dividing Taiwan into east and west,Taiwan is a country with lots of steep
mountains and short rushing rivers.There are multiple rivers running down
from the central mountain range,but most rivers are not long.Only six rivers
in Taiwan are over 100 kilometers,and they are extremely steep. Therefore,
the rivers are rushing and dangerous,and water reasource has been difficilt
to preserve.The difficulty to preserve water resource was a great issue our
ancestors tried to conquer.Basides,due to the geographical formations of Taiwan
and concentration of rainfall during rainy seasons,water in Taiwan's rivers
contains lots of snads and muds.Situated in the middle of Taiwan,Zhuoshui river
conrains the highest density of sands and muds in its water in the world.
During rainy seasons,rushing precipitations cause rivers to overflow downward
to the plains,which formed expanse of plaint and multiple channels of water.Early
settlements thrived and prospered in the these vast plains throughout Taiwan,and
built irrigation systems of various kinds to get water for drinking and agriculture.
In places without a majer river runnung through such as Taoyuan areas,wells and ponds
were dug and excavated.In places without stable water supply during dry seasons such
as Chianan plains,ponds were excavated to help keep water in storage for future
utilization.However,during rainy seasons,floods would ravage and destroy homelands
and crop fields of these early settlers.Becausr of the downside,many methods for
poeple to coexist with the rivers peacefully were developed,and the relationship
between people and the environments with various water resources become important
cultural heritages of Taiwan. And these led to the development of water-related
facilities of many kinds.
22 cases of water-related facilities and systems in Taiwan
This introduction looks at 22 cases of water-related facilities and systems in
Taiwan, and share the diversity of these facilities with the readers.Through this
introduction,readers are able to get a better understanding of Taiwan and its water
facilities as historical sites.Based on the information offered by Bureau of Cultural
Heritage,MOC,these 22 cases of water-related facilities and systems in Taiwan have
been chosen due to their contributions to water reasource and its sustainability.
Their integration,systemization and history have been sseriously examined and contemplated
so as to offer quality of sustainability in their continuation.
Based on previous standards,these 22 water resource facilities have been chosen
with serious consideration.For example,Nuannuan Water Treament Plant located in keelung
is the first modern water purification system in Taiwan.Therefore,its contribution
to the saintation and modernization of tap water system in Taiwam has been immense.With
the facilities and machines in the system,Nuannuan Water Treatment Plant has combined
perfectly with the natural surroundings.This systematic,integrated and historical tap
water system futher offers significant historical legacy,and many of its facilities
have been working relentless till now.Sustainability is no doubt a perfect word to
describe these cultural and historical sites.
Another perfect example is Huludun Canal ittgation system in central Taiwan.As a histotic
agricultural irrigation system,it witnesses the exploitation and development of Taichung
area,and further reflects the interaction and connection between Han Chinese poeple and
adoriginals throuth their utilization of water resource.The development of the canal irrigation
system also combines with the local belief,making this cultural heritage extremely significant.
Nowdays,Huludun irrigation system still nourishes Great Taichung area,and inhabitants here
flourish because of it.
- 關鍵詞：Water System Heritage
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