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從語言診斷到語言搶救計畫:太魯閣語語言轉移和母語能力的心理語言學評估以及語言規劃

從語言診斷到語言搶救計畫:太魯閣語語言轉移和母語能力的心理語言學評估以及語言規劃

  • 統一編號GPN:1011002295
  • 出版日期:2021/12
  • 作/編/譯者:Apay Ai-yu Tang
  • 語言:中文
  • 頁數:207
  • 裝訂:平裝
  • ISBN/ISSN:9789860653267
  • 出版單位:國立東華大學
  • 開數:A5
  • 版次:初版
  • 價格:定價$250

書籍介紹

雖然臺灣語言振興政策已執行二十多年,但原住民族語言仍存在不同程度的衰退,有些族語更面臨滅絕的危機。對許多族人而言,族語並非日常生活用語;族語傳承亦出現斷層。為扭轉語言衰退現象,有效進行族語復振,我們必須先掌握語言使用的現況。因此,本文以太魯閣語為研究對象,從心理語言學的觀點調查研究太魯閣語相對於台灣華語的語言強度、太魯閣語能力的世代差異,並提出太魯閣部落語言保存規劃方案。具體而言,本研究目標為:(一)應用「夏威夷語言強度評估標準」(Hawai’i Assessment of Language Access, HALA)評估太魯閣語的相對強度。(二)評估不同年齡層的語言能力。(三)提供量化數據給部落和政府計畫參考。(四)建立基準資料(baseline data),以做為語言保存的基礎。(五)提出一個微觀層面語言規劃以促進語言維持(language maintenance)。
本研究採取兩種方法:HALA 實驗以及引導語句實驗(elicitation tasks)。首先,HALA 實驗(含身體部位命名、自然景觀命名以及語詞建構實驗)測試68 位來自加灣(Qowgan)部落的受試者,並將其分為10-15 歲、16-25 歲、26-40 歲以及41-65 歲四個群組。實驗結果顯示:所有受試者對太魯閣語(非主流語言) 的反應時間比臺灣華語(主流語言)長,準確度也較低,此意謂太魯閣語世代間的衰退。再者,引導語句實驗(語音複誦、圖片命名、表演任務以及看圖說故事等四項實驗)乃為了評估不同年齡層受試者對語音和構詞如複數、斜格標記和詞綴等的知識。與26-65 歲的年長受試者相比,本研究發現
10-25 歲的年輕受試者的音韻與構詞句法呈現整體變化或能力不足的現象。另外,與被廣泛認為太魯閣語非常流利的86 歲受試者相比,10 到65 歲的所有受試者的構詞句法也呈現能力不足的現象。基於微觀層面語言規劃的概念,

目次

Chapter 1 Introduction ............................................................. 001
1.1 Background ........................................................................ 001
1.2 An analogy For Truku language shift and attrition ............ 004
1.3 Significance of the study .................................................... 005
1.4 Rationale ............................................................................ 008
1.4.1 Language shift .............................................................. 009
1.4.2 Language attrition ......................................................... 010
1.4.3 Language maintenance ................................................. 011
1.5 Objectives and organization ............................................... 011
1.6 Conclusion .......................................................................... 012
Chapter 2 Theoretical orientation ............................................ 014
2.1 Introduction ........................................................................ 014
2.2 Theory of language death ................................................... 017
2.3 Theoretical issues in L1 attrition ........................................ 021
2.3.1 Age ................................................................................ 022
2.3.2 Loss vs. accessibility..................................................... 024
2.3.3 Activation and inhibition .............................................. 026
2.4 The Question of language maintenance .............................. 028
2.4.1 Sasse’s question of revitalization .................................. 028
2.4.2 Tools to reduce language attrition from
psycholinguistic perspectives ....................................... 030
2.4.2.1 Psycholinguistic factors: Literacy .......................... 031
2.4.2.2 Interface of psycholinguistic and sociolinguistic
factors: Language use ............................................. 031
2.4.2.3 Affective factors: Motivation and attitude .............. 033
2.4.2.4 Community factors: Identity and ethnicity ............. 034
2.5 Language policy and planning ........................................... 036
2.5.1 The Neoclassical approach ........................................... 037
2.5.2 The Historical-structural approach ............................... 037
2.5.3 The Ethnographic approach ......................................... 038
2.5.4 Evaluation of the three approaches to LPP .................. 039
2.6 Research questions ............................................................. 041
Chapter 3 Psycholinguistic assessment of language shift ...... 043
3.1 Introduction ........................................................................ 043
3.2 The HALA project .............................................................. 045
3.2.1 Language use and language strength ........................... 045
3.2.2 Naming time measurement .......................................... 047
3.3 Method ............................................................................... 048
3.3.1 Participants ................................................................... 049
3.3.2 Materials ....................................................................... 050
3.3.3 Design and procedur .................................................... 052
3.3.4 Data coding .................................................................. 054
3.4 Predictions .......................................................................... 055
3.5 Results ................................................................................ 056
3.5.1 Body-part naming task ................................................. 056
3.5.1.1 Accuracy ................................................................. 056
3.5.1.2 Response times (RTs) ............................................. 061
3.5.1.2.1 RTs with both inaccurate and accurate responses ............................................ 061
3.5.1.2.2 Accurate responses ........................................... 062
3.5.1.3 Percentage of language use .................................... 065
3.5.1.4 Discussion .............................................................. 068
3.5.2 Nature-image picture naming task ............................... 069
3.5.2.1 Data coding ............................................................. 069
3.5.2.2 Accuracy ................................................................. 070
3.5.2.3 Response times (RTs) ............................................. 074
3.5.2.3.1 RTs with both inaccurate and accurate responses ............................................... 074
3.5.2.3.2 Accurate responses .............................................. 075
3.5.2.4 Percentage of language use .................................... 078
3.5.2.5 Discussion .............................................................. 080
3.6 General discussion ............................................................. 081
Chapter 4 Assessment of Truku phonological and
morphosyntactic proficiency .................................. 086
4.1 Introduction ......................................................................... 086
4.2 Basic features of the structure of Truku .............................. 087
4.2.1 Phonetics ....................................................................... 087
4.2.2 Syllable structure and stress .......................................... 088
4.2.3 Verbal construction ........................................................ 088
4.2.3.1 Verbal affixes 89
4.2.3.2 Tense/aspect/mood ................................................... 091
4.3 Linguistic proficiency ........................................................ 092
4.3.1 Phonological proficiency .............................................. 094
4.3.1.1 Method: Repetition test .......................................... 094
4.3.1.1.1 Participants .......................................................... 094
4.3.1.1.2 Materials .............................................................. 096
4.3.1.1.3 Design and procedure .......................................... 096
4.3.1.1.4 Data coding .......................................................... 097
4.3.1.1.5 Predictions ........................................................... 097
4.3.1.1.6 Results ................................................................. 098
4.3.2 Morphological proficiency ........................................... 106
4.3.2.1 Production task: Picture naming task ..................... 107
4.3.2.1.1 Participants ....................................................... 107
4.3.2.1.2 Materials ........................................................... 108
4.3.2.1.3 Design and procedure ....................................... 111
4.3.2.1.4 Data coding ...................................................... 112
4.3.2.1.5 Results .............................................................. 113
4.3.2.2 Comprehension task: Act-out task ......................... 119
4.3.2.2.1 Participants ....................................................... 120
4.3.2.2.2 Materials ........................................................... 120
4.3.2.2.3 Design and procedure ....................................... 122
4.3.2.2.4 Data coding ....................................................... 122
4.3.2.2.5 Results: Accuracy ............................................. 123
4.3.3 Syntactic proficiency .................................................... 125
4.3.3.1 Picture-based storytelling task ............................... 125
4.3.3.1.1 Participants ....................................................... 126
4.3.3.1.2 Materials ........................................................... 126
4.3.3.1.3 Design and procedure ....................................... 127
4.3.3.1.4 Data coding ...................................................... 127
4.3.3.1.5 Results .............................................................. 129
4.4 Discussion .......................................................................... 144
4.5 Concluding remarks ........................................................... 147
Chapter 5 Truku Language policy and planning ................... 150
5.1 Introduction ........................................................................ 150
5.2 Linguistic history and current trends ................................. 151
5.2.1 History of Taiwan’s languages ..................................... 151
5.2.2 Attempts to revitalize the indigenous culture and languages ............................................................... 153
5.2.3 Preference for Mandarin use in the current Truku community ......................................................... 155
5.3 Factors affecting language shift and attrition ..................... 158
5.3.1 External factors ............................................................ 158
5.3.1.1 Political inequality ................................................. 159
5.3.1.2 Educational disadvantage ....................................... 160
5.3.1.3 Economic disadvantage .......................................... 161
5.3.1.4 Frequent social contact ........................................... 162
5.3.2 Internal factors .............................................................. 162
5.3.2.1 Attitude and motivation .......................................... 163
5.3.2.2 Identity 165
5.3.2.3 Ethnicity ................................................................. 166
5.4 Truku language planning .................................................... 167
5.4.1 Language policy and planning ..................................... 168
5.4.2 Micro-language planning ............................................. 170
5.4.2.1 What actors ............................................................. 172
5.4.2.2 Attempt to influence what behaviors ...................... 174
5.4.2.3 Of which people ..................................................... 176
5.4.2.4 For what ends ......................................................... 177
5.4.2.5 Under what conditions ........................................... 178
5.4.2.6 By what means ....................................................... 179
5.4.2.6.1 Indigenous educational language planning ...... 180
5.4.2.6.2 Integrative Community-Based Language Planning ............................................................ 185
5.4.2.7 Through what decision-making process ................. 191
5.4.2.8 With what effect ..................................................... 191
5.5 Concluding remarks ........................................................... 191
Chapter 6 Conclusion ............................................................ 195
6.1 Research objectives: Summary of Findings ...................... 195
6.1.1 Studies of language loss and maintenance ................... 196
6.1.2 Assessments of language shift and language attrition .. 197
6.2 Recommendations and future research .............................. 198
6.3 Contributions and limitations ............................................. 200
6.4 Closing remarks ................................................................. 202
Appendix A ................................................................................. 203
Appendix B ................................................................................. 205
Appendix C ................................................................................. 220
References .................................................................................. 221

編/著/譯者簡介

Apay Ai-yu Tang(湯愛玉)
生於花蓮縣秀林鄉,臺灣原住民族太魯閣族人,族名 Apay Yuki。曾於護理界服務,後因個人興趣轉往語 言領域,2003年在上帝引領與家人的支持下,至夏威 夷大學進修並取得博士學位,回國後自2012年2月開 始任教於國立東華大學民族語言與傳播學系。
自幼受外公田信德牧師skYudaw Pisaw的影響與啟 發,深信自己族群語言不僅是文化的核心,更和全人 健康息息相關。雖然目前臺灣原住民族語言振興工作 面臨不同面向的挑戰,但相信只要同心維護並堅持持 續使用,必定能我們多樣的族群語言,再次美麗地 重現在道多元文化的台灣社會。

序言/導讀

由族人進行的部落為本族語復振 序 張學謙 很榮幸能為Apay Ai-Yu TANG 副教授撰寫專書序言。這本 專書是Apay 在夏威夷大學語言學系取得博士學位的博士論文, From Diagnosis to Remedial Plan: A Psycholinguistic Assessment of Language Shift, Intergenerational Linguistic Proficiency, and Language Planning in Truku(從語言診斷到語言搶救計畫:太魯 閣語語言轉移和母語能力的心理語言學評估以及語言規劃)。 本書對語言轉移的診斷與復振有創新的做法和理念,能作為後 續研究的重要參考,同時具有實務運用價值。 台灣的原住民族被比喻為進入加護病房,急需對其症狀加 以診斷和治療。Apay 從醫學的隱喻進行研究,結合先前的職業 及個人的族群認同,撰寫這本專書,除了診斷其流失狀態和病 因,也提出醫治的解方。 Apay 這本專著,運用心理學的方法進行太魯閣語語言轉移 和語言能力的診斷,並從語言規劃的視角提供社區為本的語言 復振規劃。Apay 在語言轉移和族語能力診斷也有創新的貢獻。 和一般僅用自評的語言能力測試不同,她運用語言心理學的方 法,採用任務型的方法測試語言能力,觀照語音、句法的多樣 層次,為觀察語言流失、衰退,打開新的窗戶。以心理學的方 式也較能精準、客觀的呈現跨世代語言流失。 這本專書體現了Hinton 所提倡的「為社區存在的語言學」 的精神。Apay 本身對其族語有使命感,能夠深入部落進行語言 調查,同時也能夠基於取之部落,回饋部落的精神,為部落申 請並執行國家地理雜誌的部落語言復振計畫。Apay 正確的指 出,社區需要從微觀語言規劃出發進行語言復振,主張基於部 落、社區的語言復振規劃,強調語言學家和部落合作成為夥伴, 也有助於語言復振與社區營造。另外,她也建議從政治、教育、 經濟、社會文化等層面進行原住民族語言規劃,主張社區制定 語言復振計畫,這些觀點都值得採用。 「自己的族語、自己救」強調自我族群挽救族語的重要性。 不過,語言復振除了熱情和意願之外,如果能配合語言復振的 概念和實踐範例,必定能事半功倍,Apay 的專書提供族人族語 自救的方法和典範,值得推薦。 是為序。

分類

其他詳細資訊

  • 英文題名:From Diagnosis to Remedial Plan: A Psycholinguistic Assessment of Language Shift, Intergenerational Linguistic Proficiency, and Language Planning in Truku
  • 適用對象:成人(學術性)
  • 關鍵詞:language shift,language attrition,language maintenance,語言轉移,語言減退,語言規劃
  • 附件:無附件
  • 頁/張/片數:207

授權資訊

  • 著作財產權管理機關或擁有者:國立東華大學原住民民族學院
  • 取得授權資訊:聯絡處室:國立東華大學原住民民族學院 姓名:朱宥叡 電話:03-8905753 地址:花蓮縣壽豐鄉志學村大學路2段1號 電子信箱:tjis.cis.ndhu@gms.ndhu.edu.tw